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Tool coils for or magneforming (or electromagnetic forming = EMF) of complex, 3D shaped parts were previously wound from wires or produced by complex processes such as milling and wire eroding. The milling process is necessary to produce the outer contour. Wire eroding is used to create the winding structures, whereby it should be noted, that a 3D design is very limited.
Keywords: Umformen, Magnetumformen, Werkzeugspule, Forming, Magnetic Forming, tool coil, rapid prototyping
The invention concerns to special coils for EM forming and for a method for their production, wherein the current-carrying coil body is additively manufactured using a rapid prototyping method (laser melting, etc.). This allows rapid adaptation to complex geometries. The gap width between coil and workpiece is minimal, and thus a local thinning or even crack formation at the component is prevented.
Further it is possible to integrate cooling channels to dissipate the Joule heat, generated by the high current, and to integrate reinforcing elements which leads to an increase of service life. The layered structure also makes it possible to incorporate undercuts or pockets into the windings in order to connect them to each other and with the coil body by inserting fittings made of electrical insulating materials.
EMF uses the energy of a strong pulsed magnetic field for forming of electrically conductive materials. The magnetic fields are coupled into the workpiece to be formed via the tool coil. The presented concept enables rapid adaptation of forming coils for complex geometries. The processing of three-dimensional pre-formed semi-finished products is also possible, such as the formation of close radii or the calibration of the geometry of deep drawn sheet metal components. It is also possible to produce hybrid coils using material combinations that meet the often conflicting requirements of high conductivity and high mechanical strength.
The new process allows the reproducible production of complex tool geometries. The previously required extensive manual work, especially when bending the three-dimensionally configured coil windings, is eliminated. Necessary adjustments or changes to the winding geometry are easily possible due to the additive manufacturing process.
The first coil prototypes have been manufactured and tested.